Institucionalna podpora tretjega medijskega sektorja svobodnih skupnostnih medijev

1. Svet Evrope

 

"Everyone has the right to freedom of expression"

Art. 10 European Convention on Human Rights

 

Svet Evrope definicija:

The role of community media

Community media take the form of broadcasting and/or multimedia projects and share some of the following characteristics: independence from governments, business companies, religious institutions and political parties; not-for-profit orientation; voluntary participation of civil society members in the devising and management of programmes; activities aiming at social gain and community benefit; ownership by and accountability to local communities and/or communities of interest which they serve; commitment to inclusive and intercultural practices. Community media are civil society organizations, usually registered as legal entities that offer and encourage participation at different levels of their structures. Also referred to as “third media sector”, community media have a clearly distinct identity alongside national public service media and private commercial media.

 

Dokumenti Sveta Evrope:

- Priporočila ministrov Sveta Evrope državam članicam glede medijskega pluralizma in raznovrsnosti medijskih vsebin, sprejeta 31. januarja 2007 https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=09000016805d6be3

 

- Deklaracija ministrov Sveta Evrope o vlogi skupnostnih medijev pri spodbujanju družbene kohezije in medkulturnega dialoga, sprejeta 11. februarja 2009

https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805d1bd1

 

- Priporočila ministrov Sveta Evrope državam članicam glede medijskega pluralizma in transparentnosti medijskega lastništva, sprejeta 7. marca 2018 https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=0900001680790e13

 

2. Evropski parlament

 

Resolucija Evropskega parlamenta o svobodnih in skupnostnih medijih v Evropi, sprejeta 25. septembra 2008 -

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2008-0456+0+DOC+XML+V0//SL

 

V njej EP med drugim Evropsko komisijo in države članice EU poziva, da naj upoštevajo elemente iz resolucije, tako da opredelijo svobodne in skupnostne medije kot medije, ki:

a) so nepridobitni in neodvisni od nacionalne in lokalne oblasti, sodelujejo predvsem pri dejavnostih javnega interesa in interesa civilne družbe ter si prizadevajo za jasno opredeljene cilje, ki vedno vključujejo družbene koristi in prispevajo k medkulturnemu dialogu;

b) so odgovorni skupnosti, ki so ji namenjeni, kar pomeni, da morajo skupnost obveščati o svojem delovanju in odločitvah, jih upravičiti in biti kaznovani v primeru morebitnih kršitev, tako da storitve še naprej nadzirajo interesi skupnosti in da se prepreči nastanek mrež "od zgoraj navzdol";

c) omogočajo sodelovanje članov skupnosti pri ustvarjanju vsebine, pri čemer lahko ti sodelujejo pri vseh vidikih delovanja in upravljanja, vendar morajo biti osebe, ki so odgovorne za uredniške vsebine, ustrezno strokovno usposobljene;

 

3. UNESCO

 

Trajnostni razvoj skupnostnih medijev

 

Unesco se zavzema za to, da se dolgoročna vidnost skupnostnih medijev spodbuja s podpornimi politikami in strategijami, vključno s prepoznavanjem v zakonodaji, poštenim dostopom do etra in dovoljenj, trajnostnimi viri financiranja in vključevanjem v razmislek o digitalni tranziciji. Skupnostni mediji, radiodifuzni ali spletni, so ključni za zagotovitev medijske pluralnosti in svobode izražanja ter so indikator zdrave demokratične družbe. Kot alternativnim medijem javnim in komercialnim medijem, kot tudi družbenim medijem, jih označuje njihova odgovornost do skupnosti in participacija te skupnosti, ki so ji namenjeni. Več pozornosti namenjajo lokalnim vprašanjem in skrbem ter vzdržujejo javne platforme za razpravo in diskusijo. UNESCO se zagovorniško močno zavzema za skupnostne medije, ki so neodvisni in ki delujejo za in od skupnosti. Takšne postaje dopuščajo skupnostim občutek lastništva nad lastno razvojno agendo, jih opolnomočajo da javno izražajo mnenja, razpravljajo o vprašanjih in promovirajo kulturo, zgodovino in jezik svoje skupnosti.

 

UNESCO - Priporočila za trajnost skupnostnih medijev, sprejeta v Parizu, 15. septembra 2015 - http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/news/community_media_sustainability_recommendations_en.pdf

 

UNESCO - Trajnost skupnostnih medijev: Niz politik

https://en.unesco.org/community-media-sustainability/policy-series

 

UNESCO - Trajnost skupnostnih medijev: Niz politik je bila ustvarjena za pomoč medijskim regulatorjem in državnim institucijam, da bi lahko zagotovile regulatorno okolje, ki bo prepoznalo vrednost skupnostnih medijev in podporalo njihovo dolgoročno trajnost.

 

This series of policy recommendations, very detailed and comprehensive, are formulated around the following main issues:

 

Definition: community broadcasters are generally independent, not-for-profit and governed by the communities they serve. They form an important “third pillar” of a healthy pluralistic media sector, alongside commercial and public broadcasters. Having a clear understanding of what is covered by the term ‘community broadcaster’ is not always obvious, due to the huge variety of ‘on-the-ground’ situations around the world.

Formal Recognition: formal recognition of community broadcasting in the national legislative framework helps guarantee the right to freedom of expression, ensure diversity and pluralism and promote the overall development of the sector. Beyond simple recognition, better practice is to ensure that community broadcasters benefit from all of the legal rights and privileges that apply to other media outlets.

Licensing Systems: special licensing systems should be put in place by taking into account the special needs of community broadcasters

Reserving Spectrum: policy and regulations should be able to reserve a minimum percentage of the available spectrum for community radios. Community broadcasters should also have the right to distribute their content freely over the Internet.

Public Funding : the availability of direct public funding, access to funding from foreign sources, and indirect funding are three key policy questions for community broadcasters.

Access to Private Sources of Funding: obtaining commercial sources of revenue, such as advertising and/or sponsorship, and the access to public advertising are important issues at stake. Finally, the community itself should be an important source of support in different ways.

Digital Transition: As one of the main challenges with the switchover is the additional costs it imposes on broadcasters, how to adapt financial and funding rules and approaches so as to ensure that community broadcasters are still able to operate in the new environment is a crucial question.

 

Developed in conjunction with the Centre for Law and Democracy, the project builds upon the recommendations formulated during the UNESCO event on Community Media Sustainability: Strengthening Policies and Funding, held in September 2015, which provided a knowledge exchange platform aimed to strengthen community media.

 

4. Evropska komisija

S sofinanciranjem civilno-družbenih, kulturno-umetniških in drugih projektov svobodnih skupnostnih medijev in raziskav s področja tretjega medijskega sektorja svobodnih skupnostnih medijev in področij, ki ga prečijo.